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Ethics and Law Enforcement

Deontological (Greek “deon ‘ means “obligatory ) ethics “defines certain acts as intrinsically right or wrong , with regards to the performance of laws and duties ( Booker [no date] . It believed in the philosophy therefore , that , actions are considered good or bad not because they produce bad or good outcomes but because they are good or bad in themselves . In other words , this type of ethical theory holds that certain acts are wrong or right everywhere at all times . For example if a person has the moral duty not to lie , then he is bound to tell the truth even if it means harming others (like telling the Nazis where the Jews are hiding . If the person does not reveal the exact location , then he had committed a wrongful act (lying . Teleological (Greek “telos ‘ means “end ) ethics “define the moral value of an act by its outcome (consequentialist (Booker [no date] . It is a moral theory that considers the motive /intention and duty as the basis for assessing the morality of the ultimate goal or outcome . In other words , actions are judge to be good if they achieve a good goal or outcome (e .g , it makes the doer happy . Oftentimes , the preferable outcome is to do the greatest good for the greatest number in order to “at least achieve a great balance of good over evil (W .Frankena as qted in Pless , 2000 . For example , although murder is wrong , killing people in order not to spread infection may be considered right for it means the safety and preservation of humanity (Booker [no date] Pless 2000 .Absolutism is the “view that values like truth , beauty , and /or moral goodness are independent of human opinion and have a common or universal application . This means that there exist moral principles in which the validity is independent of what humans think or say . Relativism is the opposite of absolutism , in that it denies that there are valid moral principles at all time for all people . Relativism believed that morality or truth is dependent on the point of view of individual or culture or society (Garrett 2002 Myers 2008 . Objectivism on the other hand like absolutism believed that moral principles are valid rules of action but it also adheres to the idea “that this certain moral principle may be override by other moral principle in cases of conflict ( Myers 2008 . This means that situations had to be “objectively ‘ considered before saying it was either a good or a bad action (like the example above regarding the murder of infectious individuals . Objectivism then may be considered in the middle of absolutism and relativism . Virtue ethics may be define as the one “that emphasizes the virtues , or moral character , in contrast to the approach which emphasizes duties or rules (deontology ) or that which emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism (“Virtue ‘ 2003 . Examples of virtues are honestly , benevolence , integrity , etc . The act of helping a needy person may be viewed in virtue ethics as an act of benevolence . Virtue ethics…

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