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Literature Review- Racism in the Criminal Justice System

Running head : Racism Racism Client ‘s Name University Affiliation Racism Introduction . Racism and the criminal justice system cannot be separated from each other . The migration of people from different parts of the world to the United States (Gabbidon Greene , 2006 ) has led to racial influences ,attitudes and discrimination among people in the country . Racial discrimination has also pervaded the criminal justice system of the country . Discourses on racism in the criminal justice system involve many different issues , such as those involving the sources of racism , its manifestations , and solutions to the problem . Below are articles that discuss these various aspects of interaction between racism and the criminal justice system .Bowling , B Phillips , C (2007 .Disproportionate and Discriminatory :Reviewing the Evidence on Police Stop and Search .The Modern Law Review Limited 70 (6 , 936-961 . The police and the black community often interact in the former ‘s exercise of its stop and search powers . The primary purpose of the stop and search power of the police is to confirm or allay their suspicions about people without the need to arrest them . However , this power involves the exercise of discretion on the part of the police , and such discretion opens the window for racial discrimination (Bowling Phillips , 2007 . This power is investigative in nature , to help the police detect and prevent crime . However , racial discrimination enters the picture because the police have different interpretations of the grounds in which stop and search could be used . For example , stop and search is often used by the police if there is “reasonable suspicion ‘ This ground could be a window for racial discrimination since the police could use their individual stereotypes and generalizations when they interpret the term “reasonable suspicion (Bowling Phillips , 2007 . In British society , racial discrimination and stereotyping are still common , and they are often observed in the practices of police officers .Moreover , racism is also manifested in the use of racist languages .Furthermore , racism is also obvious in the observed selective enforcement of police officers based on “cultural stereotyping and `heightened suspicion ‘ of black people (Bowling Phillips , 2007 .Bridges , L (1999 .The Lawrence Inquiry -Incompetence , Corruption , and Institutional Racism .Journal of Law and Society 26 (3 , 298-322 . This article discusses institutional racism in the criminal justice system , in the context of cases decided in London . It reports a groundbreaking finding about the existence of “institutional racism ‘in the police services throughout the country , such as the Metropolitan Police Service (Bridges , 1999 . Racial discrimination among the police was found to be influenced by several factors , such as increase in incidents of street crime and exclusions of black people from schools . The black community feels that they are excluded fro society , which generally causes them to be hostile to the society at large (Bridges , 1999 .Denney , D (1997 .Anti-racism and the Limits of Equal Opportunities Policy in the Criminal Justice System .Social Policy Administration 31 (5 , 79-95 . David Denney discusses evidence pointing to the existence of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system . There is…

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