Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms

Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms Kristal Todd ESL 523 Professor Danan Myers November 2 , 2007 Second language acquisition is different from learning one ‘s first language . Second language learners have different instructional needs .As such teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs ) must apply a distinct set of instructional strategies and techniques in order to aid students in their English language learning . A clear understanding of the instructional strategies that must be used in ELL classroom requires an analysis of the concept of second language acquisition . In order to be effective , teachers must consider the theory of second language acquisition and see to it that the principles of this theory are realized in his instruction . Stephen Krashen ‘s theory of Second Language Acquisition provides hypotheses as to how learners learn a second language . One of such hypotheses is the Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis . The hypothesis stated that there are two independent systems at work in second language performance , the acquired system and the learned system . According to Krashen (1988 , the ‘acquired system ‘ or ‘acquisition ‘ is produced by a subconscious process . This process is very similar to a process that the learner underwent when he learned his first language . This system requires the learner to be immersed in the target language . He must have meaningful interaction in the said language . According to Schutz (2007 ) the learner must engage in natural communication , “In which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances , but in the communicative act ‘ The second system , the learned system is produced by formal instruction . Schutz (2007 ) states ,“It comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge ‘about ‘ the language , for example knowledge of grammar rules ‘ This hypothesis tells language teachers to ensure that the learner engages himself in the target language in a natural way . This requires communicative elements of instruction from the teacher . At the same time , the teacher must ensure that formal instruction is provided as well . It is this combination that enhances English language learning . The principles of this theory are reflected in the instructional strategies that have been developed for second language learning .Instructional practices that aim to make content more comprehensible for ELLs are called sheltered instruction (Wallace , 2004 ) One model of sheltered instruction is called the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP . The SIOP provides teachers with a lesson planning checklist . It contains thirty components that guide the teacher on how to go about the lesson . The SIOP is highly effective for it is based on research and has been field-tested . More importantly , the SIOP was not tailor made for any particular proficiency level or age group of English language learners . According to Wallace (2004 , “The thirty components of the SIOP lesson-planning checklist can be used with any curriculum or program , for students at any age or level of English proficiency .Experienced teachers recognize the SIOP components as effective teaching strategies for all students ‘The SIOP has several components that aid English language teaching . One of this is comprehensible input . This component requires…

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