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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

[Name of writer appears here] [Course name appears here] [Professor 's name appears here] [Date appears here] Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Outline :Thesis statement Introduction General Considerations Symptoms Clinical Findings Differential Diagnosis Treatment References Thesis Statement Understanding of polycystic ovary syndrome , or PCOS , is increasing ,recognition remains painfully slow for lots of women . The condition can slip into a gap between reproductive and internal medicine consequently women often cope with embarrassing symptoms for years before stumbling on a diagnosis as well as effective treatment .These kinds of delays are more than merely annoyances . Left untreated ,PCOS can cause infertility , diabetes and heart disease .Luckily , researchers have learned more regarding this metabolic disorder in the past twenty years , and new treatments have developed . They are as well trying to tease apart the reason of PCOS , which could show the way to better answers for the next generation of women .Introduction Polycystic ovaries , or PCO as they are frequently called , are ovaries that have an excessive number of follicles . Normal ovaries contain 5-10 follicles , however in polycystic ovaries the ovary contains as a minimum 15 and occasionally as many as 30-50 follicles . Polycystic ovaries can cause pelvic pain . If the polycystic ovaries cause other symptoms the condition is referred to as polycystic ovarian syndrome , or PCOS .Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS ) is a condition in women where there is a higher than normal production of the male hormone androgen , causing a range of symptoms that may have an effect on fertility and often causes ovulatory difficulties . The symptoms that may be experienced with PCOS are weight gain , infrequent or irregular periods , excessive hair growth , acne as well as infertility (Becker , Gay . 1997 )General Considerations Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting two to fifteen percent of women of reproductive age . The primary lesion is unknown . These patients have a relatively steady state of high estrogen ,androgen and LH levels rather than the fluctuating condition seen in ovulation women . Increased levels of estrone come from obesity (conversion of ovarian and adrenal androgens to estrone in body fat ) or from excessive levels of androgens seen in some women of normal weight .The high estrone levels are believed to cause suppression of pituitary FSH and a relative increase in LH . Constant LH stimulation of the ovary results in anovulation , multiple cysts and theca cell hyperplasia with excess androgen output . The polycystic ovary has a thickened , pearly white capsule and may not be enlarged .Women with Cushing ‘s syndrome , congenital adrenal hyperplasia and androgen-secreting adrenal tumors also tend to have high circulation androgen levels and anovulation with polycystic ovaries (Inhorn , Marcia C . 2000 )Several women who have problems with ovulation have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS . PCOS is associated with abnormalities in the manner the body metabolizes insulin and glucose and , as such , there may as well be an association between PCOS and insulin resistant diabetes , particularly in older women .In women who have PCOS , their levels of LH are higher than usual , also their levels of…

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